Today we mainly think of Persian as the national language of Iran. But this region is just the core of what was once a huge strip of the Eurasian landmass, in which Persian was the language of communication for almost 1,000 years. From the Bosphorus to the Brahmaputra and from the Oxus to the Indian Ocean, what historians call the Persian world today was a vast, coherent setting linked by the Persian language, its literature, and the ideas and cultural values it contains.
Perhaps most surprisingly, Persian was most successful in India between around 1000 and 1860 as the language of office, trade, and high culture: from the poetic genius of Amir Khusrau (died 1325) to the encyclopedic intellect of Abu l Fazl (d .1602) to Mir’at ul-AkhbariRaja Ram Mohun Roy's pioneering newspaper f
On October 6, 1982, a 500-year-old Gutenberg Bible spent a night in the evidence locker at the University of California. There are 48 (possibly 49) copies of this rare book known to have been printed in Germany by the pioneer Johann Gutenberg around 1456. It is estimated that it is one of the earliest major works of European printing and that only about 180 of these Latin Bibles have ever been produced.
This particular leather-bound volume, which was found between captured small arms and marijuana in California in the 1980s, is known in elite circles as "number 45". Of the surviving copies, number 45 is considered a particularly fine example. It is printed on calfskin (parchment) and, even more rarely, retains the original binding. The famous Gutenberg ink stays shiny, the la...
Gillian Darley spans multiple disciplines. She is a historian, anthropologist, topographer, geographer - but definitely not a psychogeographer: she is polite to the expressionism of the Edgelands, perhaps too hasty when you consider how sympathetic she is to the cults and their often twisted nostrils.
What those who are not familiar with the many versions of Essex Darley, but who are familiar with popular misrepresentations of the county, will do with this energetic, almost omniscient work is everyone's guess. It can come as a kind of revelation. Darley's Essex is multi-layered and always counter-intuitive. Much of its character is due to the scarcity of large estates and the resulting non-feudality of its old settlements.
Newer settlements or merged villages such as Silver End...
Louis IX, King of France from 1226 to 1270, was an enthusiastic but unsuccessful crusader. During his crusade to Egypt in 1248-54, he was captured and released at high cost. During his crusade to Tunis in 1270, he fell ill with dysentery and died together with a large number of his companions and troops. After his death, his family and members of the French church pressed for him to be canonized. He was declared a saint in 1297.
Several accounts of Ludwig's life, intense piety, and holy deeds have been written, either with the express aim of ensuring his canonization, or later to embellish his reputation as a holy king. Two Dominican brothers, Geoffrey von Beaulieu and William von Chartres, who had been close to Louis as confessor and chaplain, wrote the hagiographies that ensured ...
The old Army Staff College in Camberley said: Amateurs speak of tactics, professionals of logistics. Not that it mattered: the "right" officers continued to talk about tactics and left the logistics to the employees of the transport and ordnance corps.
It was not an exclusively British phenomenon. One of Hitler 's field marshals, Albert Kesselring, wrote after the war that teaching at the Berlin Staff Academy before 1914 was insufficient in too many practical areas, such as: "Everything that had to do with oil that soiled your fingers and disabled the tactician. " Strategist in free flight of his ideas & # 39 ;. He included intelligence in his list of neglected topics. Carl von Clausewitz had previously thought about the wars with revolutionary France and ha...
When Hungary visited Wembley in 1953 to play a friendly game, some of the English players thought that they would take an easy game. This impression lasted for 45 seconds when the Hungarians scored their first goal in the famous 6-3 win. Hungary, led by the great Ferenc Puskás, confused and dominated England with its technique, teamwork and innovative tactics. Half a year later, Hungary defeated England 7-1 in Budapest, confirming that the first drubbing was no accident.
The Aranycsapat - Golden Squad - won the 1952 Olympic Games, remained undefeated for four years and narrowly lost the 1954 World Cup final. It was the culmination of the great age of Hungarian football, which dates back to the interwar period. In his new book, Jonathan Wilson argues that many of the ideas that shape fo
In 1565, half a century before the Pilgrim Fathers, the Spaniards began the first European settlement in what is now the United States. Despite Hispanic roots going back nearly half a millennium, descendants of newer immigrants have ignored this basic truth and tried to exclude it from American history.
Carrie Gibsons El Norte is an important reminder of the mainstream history of the "Waspish" in the United States, in which English pioneers take precedence over their Spanish counterparts. As Gibson demonstrates, a broader story would also highlight that Hispanics in the United States have not always been marginalized. They were not only pioneers but also oppressors, the settlement of which disrupted the existing indigenous order.
After detailed Spanish colonial development in...
When countries around the world grapple with the legalization of prostitution, what, if anything, can we learn from the legalized brothels of ancient Pompeii? Sarah Levin-Richardson's new book deals with the economic, social and legal complexity of old sex work. The book is the first to deal systematically with our only surviving “purpose-built” Roman brothel that was sealed by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 AD.
In 1862, archaeologists began excavating the two-story brothel between the Pompeii Forum and its main north-south business district. It was aimed at Roman men who bought sexual services from both male and female prostitutes. Only five years after its first excavation, Mark Twain visited the building and noticed that female tourists were prevented from entering at this time
A dry, cold, desolate mountain in the high Andes seems an unlikely place for a city that had 120,000 inhabitants at the end of the 16th century and was three times the size of London. Potosí's phenomenal growth at 4,000 meters was based on huge silver deposits found in the towering Cerro Rico or Rich Hill in 1545. His reputation spread quickly and widely, with images of the city that reached into the Ottoman Empire in the 1580s and a few decades later on Chinese maps.
At the peak of production in the 1590s, approximately 200,000 kilograms of silver were mined each year. Potos & # 39; silver flooded the global market. The wealth created a stimulating demand for and the production of linen and fine fabrics from the Netherlands and France as well as silk and porcelain from China a
This is a great book - but this statement needs context. Charlemagne does not lack biographers. Jinty Nelson lists ten in an early footnote, only in the past 20 years. Why and why add another? On the first of these questions: as Nelson said on his first page, Charlemagne was "exceptional by all standards". Lived from 742 to 814, King of 768, Emperor of the West from 800, ruler of the greatest empire that existed in Europe after the end of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century (except for the short-lived areas of Napoleon and Hitler)) and conquered almost half of which: If he was not exceptional, he was at least extremely lucky.
Charlemagne simply means "Charlemagne" in French, Karolus Magnus in Latin; The "Magnus" was not an adjective that was widely...
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